Tartan Tuesdays - Clan Campbell
The tartan pictured is our Campbell Modern, 16oz, Pure New Wool Tartan.
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To view other variants of the Campbell tartan, click here: https://www.scotweb.co.uk/tartan/Campbell-/31280?filter_searchterm=campbell
Origins of the clan
The origins of Clan Campbell are uncertain. The earliest attested Campbell is Gilleasbaig of Menstrie (floruit 1260s), father of Cailean Mo'r, from whom the chiefs of the clan are thought to have taken their style MacCailean Mo'r. The byname kambel is recorded at this time. Fanciful reconstructions derive it from the French de Campo Bello, but the likely source is the caimbeul, an Early Modern Irish or Gaelic by name meaning wry mouth, crooked mouth or twisted mouth.
Regarding the earlier ancestors of Clan Campbell, there is good evidence that the Campbells themselves traced their descent from an earlier kindred known as the Mac Duibne, or perhaps the Ui Duibne. It has been suggested that the family's early landholdings, around Menstrie, and in Cowal, were related to the partition of the Mormaerdom of Mentieth in 1213, and that Gilleasbuig may have been a kinsman of Mormaer Muireadhach Mo'r. The lands around Loch Awe, which would later form the core of their possessions, were not held at an early date.
The name begins to be established in Argyll at the end of the 13th century, as followers of the Earl of Lennox, with Campbells owning lands in Kintyre and the famous warrior Cailean Mo'r (Great Colin) knighted (1280) and established at Loch Awe. Cailean Mo'r's older brother established at Strachur forming the oldest branch of Clan Campbell, see Campbell of Strachur.
Between 1200 and 1500 the Campbells emergerd as one of the most powerful families in Gaelic speaking Scotland, dominant in Argyll and capable of wielding a wider influence and authority in the Hebrides and western Highlands.
Wars of Scottish Independence
The family of Colin Campbell went on to become firm supporters of King Robert the Bruce and benefited from his successes with grants of lands, titles and good marriages. They fought for the Bruce against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 during the Wars of Scottish Independence. During the 14th century the Clan Campbell rapidly expanded its lands and power. This is partly explained by the loyalty of Sir Niall Campbell (Niall mac Caile), (d.1315), to the cause of Robert I of Scotland (the Bruce) - a loyalty which was rewarded with marriage to Bruce's sister Mary.
The family was closely associated with the Bruces and Stewarts in the time of Cailean Mo'r and his son Sir Niall mac Cailein. Cailean Mo'r was killed in battle against the Clan MacDougall, enemies of Bruce and Stewart, and Sir Niall was a staunch ally of King Robert Bruce. Cailean Mo'r's mother Affrica of Carrick was probably the first cousin of King Robert's mother, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick.
15th century & royal relations
Descendants of Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Lord Campbell (Donnchadh) and his wife Lady Marjorie Stewart would be descendants of Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland and Robert II Stewart, King of Scotland. Lady Marjorie Stewart, b. 1390 was the daughter of King Robert II's son, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany. This would make all descendants of Sir Dunchan Campbell and Lady Marjorie Stewart descendants of Robert I Bruce and most of the early Kings of Scotland.
The first Lord Campbell was created in 1445. It was from the 15th century that the Campbells came to take an increasingly prominent role. The personal reign of James I of Scotland, saw that king launch a geat political assault on the Albany Stewarts and their allies in the west, however Duncan Campbell, 1st lord Campbell (Donnchadh), escaped the fate of his Albany kinsmen who were all either executed or exiled.
Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll (Cailean) was en-nobled as the Earl of Argyll in 1457 and later became Baron of Lorn and was also granted lands in Knapdale, signs that the Argylls were one of the major forces in Scotland. In 1493 after the forfeiture of the MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, the Campbell lords may well have viewed themselves as natural successors to the Clan Donald in terms of leadership of the Gaels of the Hebrides and western Highlands. The Campbell lordship thus remained one of the most significant bastions of Gaelic learning and culture in late medieval and early modern Scotland.
16th century & clan conflicts
Scottish clan map.
Battle of Flodden Field, 1513, During the Anglo-Scottish Wars of the 16th century the Clan Campbell, led by Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll fought on the side of King James IV of Scotland against an English Army. Many of the powerful Earls of Scotland participated in this battle which is sometimes referred to as the Charge of the Earls.
Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, 1547, Later during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Campbell was among the Scottish forces who fought the English at Pinkie on 10 September 1547. Due to the large number of Scottish lives lost at this battle the 10th of September is remembered today in Scotland as Black Saturday.
Battle of Langside 1568, The chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll, commanded the forces who fought for Mary, Queen of Scots against the forces of the Regent Moray, who were commanded by William Kirkcaldy of Grange.
In 1567, a conflict took place between the Clan Campbell and Clan Arthur. Duncan MacArthur and his son of the Loch Awe MacArthur family, became the victims of their own success when jealousy of their power drove neighbours to drown them in Loch Awe during a skirmish with the Clan Campbell. In the archives of Inveraray Castle a charter dated 1567 confirms that a pardon was granted to the Campbells of Inverawe for the "drowning of Clan Arthur". It is believed that the MacArthurs trying to defend themselves were driven into the loch. Centuries later in the 1970s an ancient sword was unearthed on the shore of the loch.
Battle of Glenlivet, 1594, Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll's forces of Clan Campbell, Clan Stewart of Atholl, Clan Forbes and the Chattan Confederation of Clan MacKintosh fought against the Earl of Huntly who was supported by the Clan Gordon, Clan Comyn and the Clan Cameron.
17th century & Civil War
During the Civil War, the Clan Campbell fought as Covenanters. In 1644, the Clan Irvine, who were staunch royalist supporters, found themselves surrounded by Covenanter clans. The Irvine's Drum Castle was sacked on May 2, 1644 by the Clan Campbell. A chair with Drum symbols, now in the Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, is believed to have been taken from Drum Castle either in 1644 by the Campbells or in 1640 when a previous raid was carried out by General Robert Monro.
Battle of Inverlochy (1645), The Scottish Argyll Covenanter forces of Clan Campbell led by Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the Royalist forces of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose mainly made up from Clan MacDonald, Clan MacLean and other MacDonald allies from Ireland. After the Battle of Inverlochy in 1645 James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose laid siege to Castle Campbell but was unable to beat the Clan Campbell defenders and failed to take the castle.
In 1646, the Clan Campbell, neighbours of the Clan Lamont, had steadily encroached the Lamont's lands. After the Battle of Inverlochy in 1645, the Clan Lamont took the opportunity to lay waste to the Campbell's territory. The following year, the powerful Clan Campbell army invaded the Clan Lamont taking their Castles Toward and Ascog. Sir James Lamont surrendered after accepting fair terms for his people, but the Campbells then slaughtered over two hundred of Lamont's men, women and children. Elsewhere, one tree was said to have carried thirty five bodies from its branches, and another thirty six men were buried alive. The two Lamont castles were decimated and Sir James Lamont was thrown into a dungeon for five years. This event became known as the Dunoon Massacre.
In 1647, the Argyll government troops of Clan Campbell, led by Stuart A Campbell, attacked and laid siege to Duart Castle of the Clan MacLean, but they were defeated and driven off by the Royalist troops of the Clan MacLean.
Battle of Stirling (1648), The forces of Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the forces of Sir George Munro, 3rd of Obsdale who supported the Earl of Lanerick. Among Argyll's dead was William Campbell of Glenfalloch and Sir Colin Campbell of Ardkinglas killed in action.
Battle of Altimarlech, 1678, A battle took place between the Clan Campbell and Clan Sinclair. Legend has it that so many Sinclairs were killed that the Campbells were able to cross the river without getting their feet wet. Clearly, however, the Sinclairs had influence in high places as a few years later, in 1681, they regained the earldom by an order of Parliament.
In 1678 Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, son of the Marquess of Argyll, successfully invaded the Clan MacLean lands on the Isle of Mull and garrisons Duart Castle. Later in 1691 Duart Castle was surrendered by the Clan MacLean to the chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll.
In 1692, 78 unarmed MacDonalds were murdered in the Massacre of Glencoe when a government initiative to suppress Jacobitism was entangled in the long running feud between Clan MacDonald and Clan Campbell. The slaughter of the MacDonalds at the hands of the soldiers, led by Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, after enjoying their hospitality for over a week was a major affront of Scottish Law and Highland tradition. The majority of soldiers were not Campbells, but a roll call from a few months before included six Campbells in addition to Cpt. Robt. Campbell: Corporal Achibald Campbell, Private Archibald Campbell (elder), Private Donald Campbell (younger), Private Archibald Campbell (younger), Private James Campbell, Private Donald Campbell (elder), and Private Duncan Campbell. Retrieved from: Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot
18th century & Jacobite Uprisings
The Black Watch tartan, also known as the Government sett, or the Campbell tartan. The tartan was used, and is in current use, by several military units throughout the Commonwealth.
1715 to 1719 Jacobite Rising
On 23 October 1715, chief John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll having learned that a detachment of rebels was passing by Castle Campbell, towards Dunfermline, sent out a body of cavalry, which came up with the party, and defeated it, taking a number of gentlemen prisoners, with the damage of one dragoon wounded in the cheek, and one horse slightly hurt. A month later the British government forces of Clan Campbell fought and defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. However there were in fact a small number Campbells who took the side of the Jacobites led by the son of Campbell of Glenlyon whose father had commanded the government troops at the Massacre of Glencoe 22 years earlier. The two young men "buried the hatchet" and swore to be brothers in arms, fighting side by side in the Sheriffmuir. However the British government forces led by the Argyll Campbells defeated the Jacobites.
The Black Watch
In 1725 six Independent Black Watch companies were formed. Three from Clan Campbell, one from Clan Fraser, one from Clan Munro and one from Clan Grant. These companies were known by the name Reicudan Dhu, or Black Watch. Taking advantage of the partisan nature and warrior instincts of the highlanders, these men were authorised to wear the kilt and to bear arms, thus it was not difficult to find recruits. The regiment was then officially known as the 42nd Regiment of Foot.
1745 to 1746 Jacobite Rising
During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Clan Campbell continued their support for the British Government. They fought against the rebel Jacobites at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) where government forces were defeated. However shortly afterwards the Clan Campbell held out during the Siege of Fort William. The Jacobites could not defeat the Campbell defenders who had been well supplied. Eventually the Campbells sent out their own force from Fort William who defeated the besieging Jacobites and captured their siege cannons.
Soon afterwards men of the Clan Campbell who formed part of Loudon's Highlanders Regiment helped to finally defeat the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.
Clan Campbell's castles
Inveraray Castle, seat of the Duke of Argyll, Chief of Clan Campbell.
Inveraray Castle in Argyll is the current seat of the Chief of Clan Campbell. The castle became the centre of the Clan when they abandoned Castle Campbell during the Civil War of the 17th century. Other Campbell lands were scattered across Angus, Ayrshire (Loudoun), Clackmannan (Argyll), Nairnshire (Cawdor) Perthshire, Seahouses (Northumberland).
Castle Campbell or Castle Gloom was the seat of the chief of Clan Campbell until 1654 when they moved to Inveraray Castle.
Kilchurn Castle was also owned by the Clan Campbell family.
Edinample Castle was built in the late 16th century.
Carnasserie Castle has belonged to the Clan Campbell since the 16th century.
Saddell Castle was owned by the Campbells from the late 17th century onwards.
Finlarig Castle built by the Campbells of Breadalbane in the 17th century.
Taymouth Castle built by the Campbells of Breadalbane in the 19th century.
Origin of the Campbell name: Cam Beul which is Gaelic for "Crooked mouth".
Clan Motto: Ne Obliviscaris which is Latin for "Forget Not".
Clan Campbell of Argyll
Clan Campbell of Breadalbane
Clan Campbell of Loudoun
Clan Campbell of Cawdor
Clan Campbell of Strachur
Septs of Clan Campbell
Arthur, MacArtair, MacArthur, MacCarter, Bannatyne, Ballantyne, Burnes, Burness, Burnett, Burns, Caddell, Cadell, Calder, Cattell, Connochie, Conochie, MacConachie, MacConchie, MacConnechy, MacConochie, Denoon, Denune, Gibbon, Gibson, MacGibbon, MacGubbin, Harres, Harris, Hawes, Haws, Hawson, Hastings, Isaac, Isaacs, Kissack, Kissock, MacIsaac, MacKessack, MacKessock, MacKissock, Iverson, Macever, Macgure, MacIver, MacIvor, Macure, Orr, Ure, Kellar, Keller, Maceller, MacKellar, Lorne, Louden, Loudon, Loudoun, Lowden, Lowdon, MacColm, MacColmbe, MacLaws, MacLehose, MacTause, MacTavish, MacThomas, Taweson, Tawesson, Thomas, Thomason, Thompson, Thomson, MacDermid, MacDermott, MacDiarmid, MacElvie, MacKelvie, MacGlasrich, MacKerlie., MacNichol, MacNocaird, MacOran, Macowen, MacPhedran, MacPhederain, Paterson, MacPhun, Moore, Muir, Ochiltree, Pinkerton, Torrie, Torry.